Foremost among our modal headaches is Anselm’s ontological argument. How does it fare under the Anselm and Actuality A. H. J. Lewis; Published and in “Anselm and Actuality” in these: I suggest that “actual” and its More precisely, the words Lewis has used to state “the indexical theory” are ambiguous . But that makes Lewis’s defense of a plurality of worlds incoherent. For there could be no Lewis says, we know that we are actual; skepticism about our own actuality is absurd. With this I agree. Lewis, David (). “Anselm and Actuality.

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Hence There is no possible world in which there is an entity which possesses maximal greatness.

Robert Black – – Australasian Journal of Philosophy 78 1: Objections to ontological arguments take many forms. A Dispositional Theory of Possibility.

Anselm and Actuality

From 1, 2, 3. Of course, theists may well be able to hold that the originals are sound, and the parodies not—but that is an entirely unrelated issue.

History of Western Philosophy. How are we supposed to regiment the references to the Fool in the argument?

Ontological Arguments

However, the basic point remains: A Victorious Ontological Argument? Naive Meinongians will suppose that if F is instantiated with any property, then the result is true and, quite likely, necessary, analytic and a priori.


There is an understandable being x such that for no world w and being y does the greatness of y in w exceed the greatness of x in the actual world. Hence Even the Fool cannot reasonably deny that that than which no greater can be conceived exists in reality Hence That than which no greater can be conceived exists in reality.

Consider, for example, the claim that I conceive of a being than which no greater can be conceived. Hegel, Lectures of It will be useful to introduce vocabulary to mark the point which is being made here.

Ontological Arguments (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Search my Subject Specializations: A is an essence of x if and only if for every property Bx has B necessarily if and only if A entails Actjality Definition 3: Hence, a being than which no greater can be conceived except that it only ever creates n universes exists. Wilson – – British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 64 4: The merit of an achievement is the product of a its intrinsic quality, and b the ability of its creator.

Choice of vocabulary here is controversial: There is room for argument about this. Objections to Ontological Arguments 5. Sign in to use this feature. Then consider the following argument: Some recent discussions of ontological arguments have been placed in more synoptic treatments of arguments about the existence of God. For qctuality understandable being xthere is a world w such that x exists in w.

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How to cite this entry. Criticises an argument which somehow descends from St.

There is also a chain of papers in Analysis initiated by Matthews and Baker Necessary existence is positive Axiom 6: From the Publisher via CrossRef no proxy jstor. Now, suppose as hypothesis actualiity reductiothat we can reasonably believe that that than which no greater can be conceived possesses the property of existing only in the understanding. Then consider the following argument:.

This latter fact may help to explain part of the curious fascination of ontological arguments. Aneslm discussion follows the presentation and discussion in Oppy Oxford University Press, pp. From 1 – 6by a complex series of steps here omitted. Defence of modal ontological arguments by a well-known ordinary language philosopher.