Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: Challenges and opportunities, Article. orig-research. Bibliometrics Data Bibliometrics. · Citation. This article highlights key enabling optical as well as wireless technologies and explains Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: Challenges and opportunities. A plethora of enabling optical and wireless technologies have been emerging to build future-proof bimodal fiber-wireless (FiWi) broadband access networks. attention to the technical challenges and opportunities of FiWi networks, but also .
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All of the discussed wireless routing algorithms aim at finding the optimal path through a wireless mesh front-end by meeting one or more objectives. This architecture provides high reliability, flexibility, capacity, and self-healing properties.
These different priority adcess, scheduling services, and access categories are used to meet the specific QoS requirements of different services and applications such as voice, video, email, web browsing, and file transfer. A plethora of wired and wireless networking technologies exists to realize smart grid communications infrastructures [ ].
Today, Internet technology and renewable energies are beginning to merge in Europe, North America, and other regions worldwide in order to create an interactive, integrated, and seamless Energy Internet infrastructure for the so-called Third Industrial Revolution TIR economy, which goes well beyond current austerity measures and has been officially endorsed by the European Commission as economic growth roadmap toward a competitive low carbon society by [ ], as discussed in more detail next.
Subsequently, each link is assigned its delay as weight and CaDAR computes the shortest delay path for each pair of wireless mesh router and gateway. Due to the difficulty and prohibitive costs of supplying optical fiber to all end-user premises as well as the spectrum limitations of wireless access networks, bimodal FiWi access networks are more attractive than relying on either stand-alone access solution. By means of simulation it was shown that fiber-wirelss maximum throughput performance of CaDAR can be almost doubled if only the gateways deploy an additional second radio while leaving all mesh routers with a single radio.
This is due to the fact that the MMSE precoding is fiiwi to mitigate the mutual access of the RAUs such that both mobile terminals can receive data at high data rates using the same time and frequency resources, at the expense of a significant overhead in the uplink.
The wireless channels are statically assigned to each radio such that interference is minimized. Given a path of hops, for each hop a hop offset is added to the path cost; that is, is added to the original cost of the path. In contrast, the throughput of FiWi networks decreases to a much lesser extent for increasing peer-to-peer traffic due to the above-described wireless-optical-wireless communications mode of FiWi networks.
Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: Challenges and opportunities
Citations Publications citing this paper. The primary gateway for a given mesh router is the gateway networls the minimum delay path. Multipath routing and its implications have been studied in greater detail in [ 54 ].
Wireless and optical access networks can be thought of as complementary. Showing of 95 extracted citations. FiWi research focuses on the physical PHYMAC, and network layers with the goal to develop and investigate low-cost enabling FiWi technologies as well as layer-2 and layer-3 protocols and algorithms.
In the former case, the throughput of FiWi networks is limited by the bandwidth bottleneck and interferences of communications in the wireless subnetwork. Challengss has been receiving an increasing amount of attention by other key players, for example, the Government of China most recently.
In the event of one or more FiWi network failures, the risk list of affected mesh routers is updated accordingly. Another important trend is the convergence of mobile cellular networks and WSNs in order to support machine-to-machine M2M communications. Otherwise, excess traffic needs to be dropped. For each polling cycle, the central controller schedules the received bandwidth requests based on their traffic class and informs the WiMAX subscriber stations about the resultant upstream transmission schedule.
In fact, the throughput-delay ratio of the wireless front-end increases for a growing number of multiple-radio mesh routers.
Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: Challenges and opportunities – Semantic Scholar
In the downstream direction, the central hub of GROW-Net deploys a tunable laser, which can reach different optical opportunitiies by opportunitues the laser to the respective wavelength channel supported by the intended optical terminal. Among other mobility-based UE distribution techniques, traffic steering represents a promising approach for both load balancing and minimization of unnecessary handovers in HetNets [ 93 ]. We discuss the different threads of FiWi access networking research and the rationale behind their different design objectives.
In [ 22 ], a low-cost MMF network was experimentally tested to demonstrate the feasibility of indoor radio-over-MMF networks for the in-building coverage of second-generation and third-generation cellular radio networks as well as IEEE opportuniyies If a failure occurs, the risk list is updated and subsequent packets are fiber-wirsless.
Note that dependability has many facets and includes several important system properties such as reliability, availability, survivability, and safety. In the downlink, pilots and data are transmitted to the mobile terminals, whereas the uplink is used to feed channel state information from the mobile terminals back to the CU to adapt the precoding filter.
In [ 81 ], a novel MAC protocol for FiWi access networks to efficiently carry the ever-increasing amount of video traffic was proposed and investigated.
View at Scopus P. Each ONU deploys a pair of fixed-tuned oppoetunities and fixed-tuned receiver at dedicated upstream and downstream wavelength channels.
Advances in Optics
Optical fiber does not go everywhere, but where it does go, it provides a huge amount of available bandwidth. This is the time for states to come back actively to change the focus from the stock market indices to the job-creating expansion of the real economy and increase in social wellbeing and to take convergent and synergistic actions that will lead markets and society to the next golden age, or deployment period, where the benefits of new technologies are fully realized across the entire economy, thereby offering a vast innovation and growth potential across multiple economic sectors.
Toward this goal, fiber together with next-generation wireless broadband technologies will play an increasingly vital role in future broadband access networks. In this section, we describe a number of algorithms that help solve important FiWi network planning problems related to the optimal placement of ONUs, mitigation of the detrimental impact of wireless interferences for peer-to-peer communications between wireless end-users, and architectural modifications for the support of direct inter-ONU communications.
Importantly, note that business models, arguably more than technological choices, play a key role in the rollout of smart grid communications infrastructures. In the short-to midterm, current state-of-the-art very high bit-rate DSL VDSL may be superseded by next-generation copper based solutions supported by deep fiber access networks getting increasingly closer to fiber-ireless.
Current copper based access network technologies such as DSL and HFC face serious challenges to meet the requirements of future broadband access networks. A variety of advanced survivability techniques for PONs and FiWi access networks were investigated in [ 71 fiber-eireless, 72 ]. In the second phase of the algorithm, acces each primary ONU a set of wireless end-users is obtained such that the distances between the ONU and its wireless end-users are minimized.
It was shown by means of simulation that in terms of both average delay and packet loss RADAR clearly outperforms minimum hop, shortest path, and predictive throughput routing algorithms for a wide range of failure scenarios such as gateway, ONU, and OLT failures.
Flows are optimally assigned among the different paths with the objective to minimize the out-of-order probability beyond the OLT subject to given packet delay requirements. Furthermore, we discuss the previously proposed reconfigurable FiWi network architectures that are able to respond to varying traffic loads.
In the following, we describe various proposed routing algorithms for the wireless front-end of FiWi access networks. According to recent market data by ABI Research, the number of fixed broadband subscribers will rise to million by the end ofof which million will subscribe to services delivered via fiber. FiWi networking research deals with the integration of optical fiber and wireless broadband access technologies.
Clearly, to exploit the benefits of steering peer-to-peer traffic along wireless-optical-wireless paths, the placement of ONUs has a great impact on the achievable throughput of FiWi networks.