CANDIDAL BALANITIS. DEFINITION. Balanitis refers to inflammation of the glans . The most common cause of balanitis is Candida albicans. In common usage, “balanitis” and “balanoposthitis” are interchangeable, although balanoposthitis occurs only in uncircumcised males. For the. Zoon balanitis (ZB) is one of the benign nonvenereal dermatoses, which presents as a solitary, persistent erythematous plaque usually on the glans penis.

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There is a scarcity of published data regarding the incidence and prevalence of ZB. Reflectance confocal microscopy [ 25 ] Reflectance confocal microscopy RCM is an in vivo imaging method used to obtain morphologic information about both the architecture and single cells in the epidermis and superficial dermis by Vivascope Hague J, Ilchyshyn A.

Male diseases of the pelvis and genitals N40—N51— A report of two cases treated with pimecrolimus. The treatment of Zoon’s balanitis with the carbon dioxide laser.

Zoon balanitis: A comprehensive review

Report of a case and review of the literature. Clinical criteria for diagnosing Zoon balanitis[ 18 ].

This article provides an overview of the epidemiology, clinical presentation, histopathological features, and diagnostic criteria and diagnostic methods of ZB. Balanitis is uncommon in circumcised men and in many cases preputial dysfunction is a causal or contributing factor. It may be associated with siderophages i. Hence, following diagnostic methods are helpful to make a definite diagnosis of ZB:.


Views Read Edit View history. Financial support and sponsorship Nil. Petersen CS, Thomsen K. Non-venereal diseases of male genitalia. However, long-term controlled studies are needed to confirm its effect and to know the dose and duration of therapy for complete clearance in ZB [ Table 2 ].

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Topical steroids preparations – There are mainly candidiasicw studies one by Yoganathan et al. No evidence of human papillomavirus infection in balanitis circumscripta plasmacellularis Zoon.

Other association Some authors have found an association between ZB and erythroplasia of Queyrat; while others believe that ZB can precede carcinoma of the penis, supposing that the carcinogenic changes candudiasica arise in the chronically inflamed mucosa of ZB. Recurrent bouts of balanitis may cause scarring of the preputial orifice ; the reduced elasticity may lead to pathologic phimosis.

Zoon balanitis: A comprehensive review

It is most balanopkstitis located on the glans penis, but inner surface of prepuce and coronal sulcus may be involved. Erythroplasia of Queyrat of the glans penis on a background of Zoon’s plasma cell balanitis.

Hematospermia Retrograde ejaculation Postorgasmic illness syndrome. Candidlasica balanitis successfully treated with photodynamic therapy: Balanopostjtis tacrolimus, genital lichen sclerosus, and risk of squamous cell carcinoma.

Retrieved from ” https: Zoon’s plasma cell balanitis: Balanitis is inflammation of the glans penis. Most of the researchers have used TCIs in ZB for 4—8 weeks resulting in significant clinical improvement without any severe side effect. Changes in dermal vasculature include vascular dilatation with singular vertical or oblique orientation of proliferated individual vessels, which is characteristic of ZB.


Balanitis – Wikipedia

YAG laser – Few studies have reported Er: Balanoposthitis is believed to have contributed to the decline to near-extinction of Gilbert’s potoroo. Initial treatment in adults often involves simply pulling back the foreskin and cleaning the penis. Lysosome granules biogenic amines Histamine Serotonin. However, it is postulated that it acts via triggering the upregulation of cellular immunity which may overcome local response to some unknown causative agents.

It has been postulated that tacrolimus may affect the plasma cell response via its action on helper T-cells or a possible underlying T-cell dysfunction. According to these studies, moderately potent steroid preparation with or without topical antibiotics is effective alternative to surgical management although these studies did not raise the level of evidence [ Table 2 ]. J Cosmet Candidiasoca Ther.

Macrophage Epithelioid cell Giant cell Granuloma. According to a study by Petersen et al. There is only one case report of ZB treated with oral dapsone without any side effect although the mechanism of action was not clear.

J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. Zoon’s balanitis treated with Erbium: Ccandidiasica Folliculitis Cellulitis Hidradenitis.